In TINKUs' performances, a variety of native instruments with origins in Native American, African & Spanish influence are utilized. The WIND family of instruments consists of the Zampoña, Toyos, Antara, Maltas, Rondador, Quena & Quenacho as well as some unique instruments designed exclusively for use in TINKU's concerts like the Quenicho™; all primarily of Native American influence. The PERCUSSION instruments encompass the Bombo, Bongos, Chajchas, Cajon Peruano and Palo de Lluvia or Rain stick; primarily of African influences. The STRING instruments are composed of the Guitar, Charango, Cuatro and Ronroco; primarily of Spanish influence. In addition, TINKU minimizes the use of electrical or non-native instruments to maintain the truest form of Andean rhythms as well as Latin, Folk & World or Roots music.
TINKU's popularity and success is attributed to an ample repertoire covering music from over 12 countries, a variation in musical rhythms (over 19 rhythms) and an amazing ability to introduce a variety of instruments. Each of TINKU's performance whether it's a One-Man-Band, Duo or Group act is a complete show of true artistry, performing 100% live music.
The wind instruments used by TINKU are primarily of Native American origin. They are commonly known in North America as "panpipes" or "panflutes".The ones used by the musical group TINKU are South American panpipes. There also exist the European and Oriental panpipes. For our purposes, we will discuss on the South American instruments.
Traditional South American wind instruments can be grouped into two categories: double row and single row. Double row instruments are generally known as panpipes and othertimes referred to as "Zampoñas". However, each one has it own unique name based on its size and structure. Zampoñas are primiarily constructed of bamboo tubes of various lengths. Each tube is tuned to a different musical note.Their sizes vary from 5 inches to 5 feet in length. There are double row instruments named Toyos (the longest panpipe, approximately 5" tall), Zampoña (large & medium) & Chulis (the smallest of the panpipes). Others do exist and have different names. Zampoñas are played in various ways. They are often played in pairs and sometimes tied together. They are othertimes played alternately by one or by two separate musicians ("sicuriadas"); or they are played in conjunction by two separate musicians ("sicuriadas") or even by a single musician.
In the single row instruments, there are several panflutes or simply referred to as "flutes": Antara, Quena (Bamboo & Ebony), Quenicho™, Quenacho. They have the same musical note structure as the Zampoña but in a single row fashion. The Quena, sometimes spelled "Kena", is a single bamboo reed flute. It was originally constructed of bone (femur, gold, copper or clay). It varies in size and key. Quenas also come in various lengths. The smallest one used by TINKU is the "Quenicho™", an instrument designed exclusively for use in TINKU's concerts. The Quenicho™ reaches the highest of the musical notes. One can also find Bamboo Quena, Ebony Quena and Quenacho. The latter is the longest of all and reaches the lowest notes.
Percussions are thought to have been introduced to Latin America by the Spaniards who, in turn, acquired the persussion rhythms from the Africans. The South American Indians then created their unique versions of percussion instruments such as the Bombo & Cajon by using the materials available in their homeland. The Bombo & Cajon are both South American drums. The Chajchas are made of goat hooves and serve a similar purpose as the Mexican maraca. The Palo de Lluvia (Rainstick) is utilized to produce the natural sounds of rain or water. Other percussons incorporated by TINKU include Claves, Chimes, Maracas (Mexico), Cymbals, Cow Bells & Shakers.
Requinto (Mexico); Charango (Chile); Cuatro (Venezuela); Ronroco (Bolivia); Guitar (Spain).
All of these string instruments are primarily of Spanish influence.